How to Develop a Crisis Emergency Response Plan



In today’s unpredictable world, having a Crisis Emergency Response Plan is not just an option, but a necessity for every organization. A well-structured plan can be the difference between chaos and order during a crisis. Without it, organizations risk severe damage to their operations, reputation, and even their existence. How to Develop a Crisis Emergency Response Plan?

Understanding the Risks

The first step in developing a crisis emergency response plan is understanding the risks your organization might face. This process, known as risk assessment, involves identifying potential crises that could disrupt your operations. These could range from natural disasters like earthquakes and floods, to human-caused crises like cyber-attacks or product recalls. Understanding these risks allows you to prepare for them effectively.

Assembling Your Crisis Response Team

A Crisis Response Team (CRT) is the backbone of any crisis emergency response plan. This team is usually composed of members from different departments, each bringing their unique skills and perspectives to the table. The composition of the team can vary depending on the nature of your organization, but here are some key roles that are commonly included:

1. Team Leader: This individual is responsible for coordinating the team’s efforts and making critical decisions during a crisis. They should be someone with strong leadership skills and the ability to stay calm under pressure.

2. Communications Officer: This person oversees managing both internal and external communications during a crisis. They should be skilled in crisis communication and public relations to ensure that accurate information is disseminated quickly and effectively.

3. Logistics Coordinator: This role involves managing resources and ensuring that all logistical aspects of the response plan are conducted smoothly. They should be someone with strong organizational skills and an understanding of the organization’s operations.

4. Safety Officer: This individual is responsible for ensuring the safety of all staff members during a crisis. They should have a background in health and safety regulations and procedures.

5. Human Resources Representative: This person is responsible for addressing the concerns of staff members, coordinating support for affected employees, and managing any staffing changes that may be required during a crisis.

6. IT Specialist: In today’s digital age, many crises may involve or impact an organization’s IT systems. Having an IT specialist on the team can help manage these risks and ensure that critical systems remain operational.

The CRT should be trained to manage crises and make critical decisions under pressure. This training can take many forms, including tabletop exercises, simulations, and drills. Regular training ensures that the team is always ready to respond effectively when a crisis strikes.

Remember, the key to a successful CRT is not just having the right people on the team, but also ensuring that they work well together. Regular team building and training exercises can help build trust and improve communication within the team, making them more effective when a crisis hits.

Assembling and managing a Crisis Response Team (CRT) can be a complex task with several challenges. Here are some common ones:

1. Identifying the Right Team Members: Selecting individuals with the right skills and experience for each role can be difficult. It is important to choose people who can manage stress, make decisions under pressure, and work well in a team.

2. Availability of Team Members: In many organizations, the members of the CRT have other primary roles. Ensuring that they are available and ready to respond when a crisis occurs can be a challenge.

3. Training: Providing the team with the necessary training to manage a crisis effectively can be time-consuming and costly. However, it is an essential part of preparing the team.

4. Communication: Ensuring clear and effective communication both within the team and with other stakeholders during a crisis can be challenging, especially in high-pressure situations.

5. Regular Reviews and Updates: The CRT needs to regularly review and update the crisis response plan to ensure it remains effective. This requires time and commitment from the team members.

6. Maintaining Morale: Dealing with crises can be stressful and emotionally draining. Keeping the team motivated and maintaining morale can be a challenge.

7. Resource Allocation: Allocating sufficient resources for crisis management, including the CRT, can be a challenge, especially for smaller organizations.

Remember, while these challenges may seem daunting, they can be overcome with careful planning, regular training, and the commitment of the organization and the CRT members. It is also important to learn from each crisis to continually improve your crisis management capabilities.

Developing the Plan

1. Prevention Strategies

Prevention strategies are initiative-taking measures designed to prevent crises from occurring in the first place. This could include:

  • Regular risk assessments to identify potential threats.

  • Implementing safety protocols and procedures.

  • Regular maintenance and inspection of equipment.

  • Training staff in crisis prevention techniques.

2. Mitigation Strategies

Despite your best efforts, some crises may still occur. Mitigation strategies are designed to minimize the impact of these crises. This could involve:

  • Having backup systems in place in case of system failures.

  • Insurance coverage for financial losses.

  • Having a communication plan to manage information flow during a crisis.

3. Response Procedures

Response procedures provide clear instructions on what to do during a crisis. They should be simple, clear, and easy to follow. This could include:

  • Evacuation procedures in case of a physical threat.

  • Contact information for key personnel and external agencies.

  • Steps to assess the situation and make critical decisions.

4. Recovery Plans

Once the immediate crisis has been managed, the focus shifts to returning to normal operations. Recovery plans provide guidelines on how to achieve this. They could include:

  • Plans to repair or replace damaged equipment.

  • Support for affected staff, such as counseling services.

  • A public relations strategy to manage the organization’s reputation.

Remember, a good crisis emergency response plan is comprehensive, covering all stages of a crisis from prevention to recovery. It should be regularly reviewed and updated to ensure it remains effective.

Training and Testing the Plan

Training is a critical component of any crisis emergency response plan. It ensures that all staff members, not just the Crisis Response Team, know what to do during a crisis. Here are some key aspects of effective training:

  • Regular Training Sessions: These should be conducted regularly to ensure that all staff members are familiar with the plan. The frequency of these sessions can depend on the nature of your organization and the risks it faces.

  • Realistic Drills: Drills allow staff members to practice their roles in a safe environment. These should be as realistic as possible to prepare staff for actual crises.

  • Simulations: Simulations can be used to evaluate how staff would respond to hypothetical crisis scenarios. These can be particularly useful for preparing for less common but high-impact events.

  • Workshops: Workshops can be used to educate staff about the plan and their roles within it. This can also be a good opportunity to gather feedback and ideas for improving the plan.

Assessing the plan is just as important as training staff. It helps identify any weaknesses or areas for improvement in the plan. Here are some key aspects of effective testing:

  • Scenario Testing: This involves testing how the plan would hold up against specific crisis scenarios. This can help identify any gaps or weaknesses in the plan.

  • Full-Scale Exercises: These are large-scale tests that involve all staff members and mimic a real crisis as closely as possible. These exercises can be amazingly effective at evaluating the plan and the organization’s readiness for a crisis.

  • Review and Update: After each test or exercise, it is important to review the results and update the plan, as necessary. This ensures that the plan remains effective and up-to-date.

Remember, a crisis emergency response plan is only as good as its execution. Regular training and testing are crucial for ensuring that your organization is prepared for whatever crises the future may hold.

Reviewing and Updating the Plan

A crisis emergency response plan is not a static document, but rather a living one that evolves with your organization and the environment in which it operates. Regular reviews and updates are crucial to ensure its effectiveness. Here are some key aspects to consider:

Regular Reviews

Regular reviews of the plan ensure that it remains relevant and effective. These reviews should be scheduled at regular intervals, such as annually or bi-annually, and any time there are significant changes in your organization or operating environment.

Changes in Risks

The risks your organization faces may change over time due to factors such as innovative technologies, changes in industry, or changes in the regulatory environment. Regular risk assessments can help identify these new risks so that they can be incorporated into the plan.

Changes in Personnel

Changes in personnel, especially within the Crisis Response Team, may necessitate updates to the plan. New team members may bring new skills and perspectives that can enhance the plan. Additionally, roles and responsibilities within the plan may need to be updated to reflect these changes.

Lessons Learned

Every crisis provides an opportunity to gain experience and improve. After a crisis, conduct a post-mortem analysis to identify what worked well and what did not. Use these lessons learned to improve the plan.

Stakeholder Feedback

Feedback from stakeholders, including staff, customers, and regulators, can provide valuable insights for improving the plan. Regularly solicit and incorporate this feedback into your plan.

Remember, a crisis emergency response plan is a critical tool for managing crises. However, its effectiveness depends on it being up-to-date and relevant to the risks your organization faces. Regular reviews and updates are therefore crucial.


Developing a crisis emergency response plan is a critical task for any organization. It requires understanding your risks, assembling a capable team, developing a comprehensive plan, and ensuring it is regularly trained, evaluated, and updated. By doing so, you can ensure that your organization is prepared for whatever crises the future may hold.

About the Author:

Joseph “Paul” Manley is the founder of Risk Mitigation Technologies, LLC, where he offers expertise in security, crisis management, and preventing workplace violence. He collaborates with organizations to create custom security solutions through comprehensive assessments, employee training, and consulting. As a retired Police Lieutenant from Massachusetts, an Adjunct Lecturer, and a certified specialist in workplace violence and crisis intervention, he brings a wealth of knowledge to his role. Paul is a member of the International Association of Professional Security Consultants (IAPSC) and has also written a practical guide titled “How to Stay Calm and Aware in Any Situation: A Practical Guide to Situational Awareness and De-escalation Strategies.


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